FAO family account and key to WA gobies
by E.O. Murdy and D.F. Hoese

 

Gobiidae

gobies

 

Diagnostic characters: Typically very small (10 cm or less), the smallest known vertebrate is a goby, Trimmatom nanus, that matures at 8 mm. The majority of gobies have the pelvic fins united to form a ventral disc; those gobies whose pelvic fins are not united are typically found in coral reef areas. Typically, but with many exceptions, body stout; head short and broad; snout rounded; gill membranes broadly joined to isthmus; scales large and either cycloid or ctenoid; two separate dorsal fins (except in Gobioides), first dorsal fin with 4-8 weak spines, second dorsal fin with one weak spine followed by 9-18 soft rays; caudal fin broad and rounded, comprising 16 or 17 segmented rays; anal fin with one weak spine followed by 9-18 soft rays; pelvic fin long with one spine and five rays, pelvic spines usually joined by fleshy membrane (frenum), and innermost pelvic rays usually joined by membrane; pectoral fin broad with 15-22 rays. The terminal ray of the second dorsal and anal fins is divided to its base (but only counted as a single element.) The head is often scaled, scales being either cycloid or ctenoid. Head typically with a series of sensory canals and pores as well as cutaneous papillae.  No lateral line on the body. The teeth are usually small, sharp and conical and are found in one to several rows in the jaws.  Colour: variable.

 

Habitat, biology, and fisheries: The Gobiidae is the largest family of marine fishes and comprises more than 220 genera and 1,500 species. This highly successful family primarily inhabits shallow tropical and subtropical waters, but has invaded nearly all benthic habitats from freshwater to the shoreline to depths exceeding 500 m. Typically secretive in their habits, they can be found on a variety of substrata from mud to rubble, and coral reefs are particularly rich in goby species. Some gobies spend their entire lives in freshwaters, others migrate back and forth between freshwater and brackish water environments, or between marine and brackish waters.  Members of the subfamily Sicydiinae inhabit the upper reaches of rivers, often at great altitudes, and migrate downstream to spawn; when spawning is complete, the fertilized eggs drift out with currents to develop at sea, and the adults return to their upstream habitat, often overcoming torrential stream flows.  Some gobies associate with other organisms such as shrimps, sponges, soft corals, and other fishes. For a few species, symbiotic relationships with other organisms are a necessary part of the goby's lifestyle. For instance, the cleaner gobies of the Caribbean (Elacatinus) feed on ectoparasites of other fishes whereas the Indo‑Pacific gobies of the genera Amblyeleotris and Cryptocentrus share a burrow with a snapping shrimp (Alpheus). Typically, female gobies lay a small mass of eggs, each attached by an adhesive stalk to the underside of dead shells or other firm overhanging substrate. The eggs are guarded and tended by the male.  The family is represented by more than 30 genera and approximately 125 species in this area.

            Most gobiids are of no commercial or recreational importance other than as food for larger fishes.  Post larval fry of Awaous and Sicydium are popular food items to native peoples throughout this region.  Fry are collected in nets as they enter river and stream mouths during migrations from the sea to freshwater, usually during a full moon.

 

 

Similar families occurring in the area:

Eleotridae: base of second dorsal fin equal to or shorter than distance from end of second dorsal fin to base of caudal fin; pelvic fins always separate; found mostly in brackish or freshwater habitats, only one species occurs on coral reefs.

Tripterygiidae: three separate dorsal fins present, two with flexible spines and one with soft rays; cirri may be present on eye.

Blenniidae: body without scales; dorsal fin continuous, with fewer than 20 flexible spines and 12 or more soft rays; cirri may be present on eye and on nape.

 

 

KEY TO GOBIID SUBFAMILIES IN THE WESTERN ATLANTIC-FISHING AREA 31

 

[Keys modified and revised from Hoese, 1978, Birdsong, 1981, Pezold, 1984, Watson, 1996]

    

1a. Dorsal and anal fins connected to caudal fin, both dorsal fins united by membrane; mud-burrowing, elongate gobies with pink to purple skin...................................................................................................................

..........................................................................Gobionellinae, in part (sensu Pezold, 1993)

    

1b. Dorsal and anal fins separated from caudal fin, both dorsal fins typically separate............... 2

    

2a. Lower jaw typically possessing only a single row of teeth .................................... Sicydiinae

    

2b. Lower jaw typically possessing more than one row of teeth............................................... 3

    

3a. Paired anterior interorbital pores present........... Gobionellinae, in part, (sensu Pezold, 1993)

    

3b. Usually a single anterior interorbital pore present or head pores completely lacking. If two anterior interorbital pores present (Only gobiines in Fishing Area 31 with paired AIP are Coryphopterus hyalinus, C. personatus, and C. lipernes), then pelvic frenum lacking and pelvic fins nearly separate. If head pores absent, then one or more of the following conditions also exist: 1) chest, head, nape, and pectoral-fin base unscaled and/or 2) barbels present on chin [although exceptions exist, head pores are typically absent only in a few, small, coral reef gobies] Gobiinae (sensu Pezold, 1993)

 

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Key to the genera of Sicydiinae in Fishing Area 31

Only a single genus of sicydiine gobies is found in this region, that genus is Sicydium.  Taxonomy is incompletely resolved in this genus and, thus, a key to the species of Sicydium is not yet available.

 

The Sicydium species in Fishing Area 31 are some or all of the following:

 

Sicydium adelum Bussing, 1996; to 9cm; Costa Rica

Sicydium altum Meek, 1907; Costa Rica

Sicydium antillarum Ogilvie-Grant, 1884; Barbados, Panama [synonymous with plumieri acc to Watson 2000]

Sicydium buscki Evermann & Clark, 1906; Dominican Republic

Sicydium caguitae (Evermann & Marsh, 1900); Puerto Rico [synonymous with plumieri acc to Watson 2000]

Sicydium gilberti Watson, 2000; Dominican Republic

Sicydium gymnogaster Ogilvie-Grant, 1884; Mexico to Honduras

Sicydium montanum Hubbs, 1920; Venezuela [synonymous with punctatum acc to Watson 2000]

Sicydium plumieri (Bloch, 1786); Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Martinique, Guadeloupe, St. Vincent, Barbados

Sicydium punctatum Perugia, 1896; Martinique, Venezuela, Panama, Dominica

Sicydium salvini Ogilvie-Grant, 1884; Panama

Sicydium vincente Jordan & Evermann, 1898; West Indies [synonymous with plumieri acc to Watson 2000]

 

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Key to the genera of Gobionellinae in Fishing Area 31

[Mostly brackish to freshwater species]

 

1a. A single continuous dorsal fin; eyes minute, about 10 percent of head length; body very elongate, eel-like.  Reaching 50 cm in total length…………………………….…2

 

1b. Two dorsal fins; eyes larger, 15 percent or more of head length; body robust or elongate. Maximum size of adults 30 cm……………………………………………….3

 

2a. D. VI-I, 14; A. I, 13-14; caudal vertebrae 16...………..............Gobioides grahamae

2b. D. VI-I, 15; A. I, 15; caudal vertebrae 17.....…………...........Gobioides broussoneti

 

3a. Low membranous crest present on nape reaching from origin of first dorsal fin to above preopercle................ Oxyurichthys stigmalophius

3b. No crest present on nape.............………………......................................................4

 

4a. Body without scales; vomer (on roof of mouth) with teeth. ....Vomerogobius flavus

4b. Body completely scaled; vomer without teeth……………………………………..5

 

5a. Shoulder girdle, under gill cover, with distinct fleshy lobes.…(Awaous) ………..6

5b. Shoulder girdle without fleshy lobes………………………………………………7

 

6a. Longitudinal scales rows typically fewer than 60; first dorsal fin reddish orange.......................…………………........Awaous flavus

6b. Longitudinal scale rows typically more than 60, often more than 70; first dorsal fin yellowish green................……Awaous banana

 

7a. Teeth compressed, with bilobed tips; mouth slightly inferior; two dusky spots at base of caudal fin.  ............…….Evorthodus lyricus

7b. Teeth conical, pointed‑tipped; mouth at end of snout or inferior .…………………..8

 

8a. Tongue distinctly bilobed; sides of head scaled to below eye; mouth inferior...............…………….…….Gnatholepis thompsoni

8b. Tongue tip‑pointed to rounded; sides of head without scales, or with scales on opercle only; mouth at end of snout.  ............9

 

9a. Long, lateral cephalic canal with four pores; numerous elongate gill rakers on both arms of first gill arch....(Gobionellus)……………….10

9b. Short, lateral cephalic canal with only two pores; no gill rakers or lobes on upper arm of first gill arch, 4-5 gill rakers on lower arm, gill rakers short and triangulate...………………….....................(Ctenogobius)………………………………………..11

 

10a. Total elements in second dorsal fin 13; total elements in anal fin 14; a large anterolateral splotch on the trunk beneath the pectoral fin.................Gobionellus stomatus

10b. Total elements in second dorsal fin 14; total elements in anal fin 15; no spot beneath pectoral fin ……………………………...Gobionellus oceanicus

 

11a. Total elements in second dorsal fin 11; total elements in anal fin 12…………….12

11b. Total elements in second dorsal fin 12; total elements in anal fin 13…………….13

 

12a. Black circles on side of head; many green spots on side…………………………… Ctenogobius smaragdus

12b. No circular spots on side of head; about 5 round or elongate dark blotches along mid-side, some with diagonal marks extending upward to form V-shapes............………............…………………………………..….. Ctenogobius boleosoma

 

13a. Darkly pigmented along preopercular margin of cheek ………………….……..14

13b. Preopercular margin, if pigmented, not more intense than other head pigmentation, and not as distinctly defined…………………………………………………………..15

 

14a. Nape typically with 10-12 predorsal scales; spines of first dorsal fin not produced...............................… Ctenogobius stigmaturus

14b. Nape with few or no scales; third spine of first dorsal fin often greatly produced in males.... Ctenogobius fasciatus

 

15a. Eye greatly reduced, not filling socket………………...… Ctenogobius thoropsis

15b. Eye normal, not reduced…………………..………………………...................16

 

16a. Cheek with three dark broad vertical bars; laterally projecting, sometimes nearly horizontal, tusk-like canine
 tooth in middle of lower jaw..........................................................................................Ctenogobius stigmaticus

16b. Cheek not as above; canine tooth present midlaterally in lower jaw of some species but not projecting laterally or horizontally…………………………….…………….17

 

17a. Broad strip of dark pigment crossing lower cheek from lower preopercular angle to just above the corner
 of the jaw; males often with elongate 3rd spine in first dorsal fin and large recurved canine tooth midlaterally in lower
 jaw.............................................Ctenogobius pseudofasciatus

17b. Broad strip not present as described; males with or without elongate spine and large, midlateral canine tooth in lower jaw …...................18

 

18a. Cheek pigmentation dominated by distinct suborbital bar that follows a vertical from lower rim of orbit to the
corner of the jaw (in some populations only reaching a third of the distance to jaw) ...……………... Ctenogobius saepepallans

18b. Cheek pigmentation not dominated by suborbital bar described above, instead horizontal bar across
 midcheek from upper preopercular canal to corner of jaw or streak on snout from eye to midlateral portion
 of upper jaw may be more pronounced...........19

 

19a. Caudal fin very elongate in both sexes (42-53% SL in males, 39-50% in females); jaw long, extending to
posterior margin of orbit in both sexes (13-16% SL in males, 13-14% in females); dark, well-defined shoulder
patch present (most prominent marking on trunk); V-shaped pattern of midlateral blotches with dorsal extensions
frequently formed in adults........................................................................................... Ctenogobius phenacus

19b. Caudal fin moderately produced (to 44% SL in males, to 39% in females); jaw long in males but not reaching
posterior margin of orbit in females (only to 13% SL); shoulder patch frequently present but rarely as dark as midlateral
blotches; V-shaped pattern not formed, only single dorsal arms may be present...............................................................20

 

20a. Pelvic fin in adult males dusky; in females, pelvic fin with bilateral streaks paralleling innermost ray coursing
posteriorly from fin base; adult males typically with 3rd spine of first dorsal fin elongate.......………………………..... Ctenogobius claytoni

20b. Pelvic fin in adult males with bilateral streaks paralleling innermost ray coursing posteriorly from fin base;
pelvic fin of females without streaks; adult males lack elongate spine in first dorsal fin............……………………………............ Ctenogobius shufeldti

 

Gobionelline species included in key:

W31 = western sector of FAO Fishing Area 31

S31 = southern sector of FAO Fishing Area 31

NW41 = northwest sector of FAO Fishing Area 41

 

Awaous flavus (Valenciennes, 1837), to 10cm, Colombia to Brazil W31

Awaous banana (Valenciennes, 1837), to 30cm, Florida and Antilles to Central America and Brazil W31

Ctenogobius boleosoma (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882), to 7.5cm, Maryland to Florida and Bahamas, and n. Gulf of Mexico, w. Caribbean to Brazil W31

Ctenogobius claytoni (Meek, 1902), to 6cm, Texas, Mexico W31                                              

Ctenogobius fasciatus Gill, 1858, to 7.2cm, Dominica, Trinidad, Barbados, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela W31                            

Ctenogobius phenacus (Pezold and Lasala, 1987), to 5cm, Venezuela, Surinam, French Guiana S31

Ctenogobius pseudofasciatus (Gilbert & Randall, 1971), to 6.6cm, Florida, Belize, Costa Rica, Trinidad W31

Ctenogobius saepepallens (Gilbert & Randall, 1968), to 5cm, s. Florida and Bahamas to Venezuela W31

Ctenogobius shufeldti (Jordan & Eigenmann, 1887), to 8cm, North Carolina to s. Florida and Texas W31

Ctenogobius smaragdus (Valenciennes, 1837), to 15cm, North Carolina and Florida to Brazil W31 

Ctenogobius stigmaticus (Poey, 1860), to 8cm, South Carolina and n.e. Gulf of Mexico to Brazil W31              

Ctenogobius stigmaturus (Goode & Bean, 1882), to 6.5cm, Florida to Key West W31

Ctenogobius thoropsis (Pezold and Gilbert, 1987), to 5.5cm, Surinam, Brazil S31, NW41  

Evorthodus lyricus (Girard, 1858), to 15cm, Chesapeake Bay and n. Gulf of Mexico to n. South America W31

Gnatholepis thompsoni Jordan, 1904 to 7.5cm, Bermuda, Florida, and Bahamas to w. Caribbean and n. South America W31

Gobioides grahamae Palmer & Wheeler, 1955, to 20cm, Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil S31, NW41

Gobioides broussoneti Lacepθde, 1800, to 50cm, South Carolina to Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and south to Brazil W31, NW41

Gobionellus stomatus Starks, 1913, to 11cm, Brazil S31

Gobionellus oceanicus (Pallas 1770), to 30cm, North Carolina to Brazil W31

Oxyurichthys stigmalophius (Mead & Bφhlke, 1958), to 16.5cm, Florida, Bahamas, and s. Gulf of Mexico to Surinam W31

Vomerogobius flavus Gilbert, 1971, to 2.5cm, Bahamas W31

 

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Key to the described genera of Gobiinae in Fishing Area 31

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1a. First dorsal fin with 6 or fewer spines. (Evermannichthys typically has 6 or
fewer spines in the first dorsal fin but 7-spined Evermannichthys have been reported)………..2

1b. First dorsal fin with 7 or 8 spines…………………………………….……………..30

 

2a. Second dorsal fin with more than 20 elements; pelvic fins separate, with 1 spine and 4 rays………………………………………..……(Ptereleotris)…….…………………….3

2b. Second dorsal fin with fewer than 20 elements; pelvic fins either separate or connected by membrane,
with 1 spine and 5 rays……………………….………………..4

 

3a. Black stripe near edge of dorsal fins; caudal fin lanceolate…….Ptereleotris calliurus

3b. No black in dorsal fins; caudal fin rounded………………………Ptereleotris helenae 

 

4a. No head pores…………………………………………………………………………5

4b. Head pores present……………………………….………………………………….18

 

5a. Body mostly without scales, only a few scales anterior to caudal fin or none; body very slender,
body depth contained 7 to 9 times in standard length without caudal fin; second dorsal fin with 1 spine
and 10 to 15 soft rays.……(Evermannichthys)…………6

 

5b. Body completely scaled, scales reaching anteriorly at least to origin of first dorsal fin; body deep, the
depth contained 4 to 7 times in standard length; second dorsal fin with 1 spine and 8 to 11 soft
rays………………………………………………………….…….9

 

6a. Body with numerous dark bars or saddles, especially dorsally….......................…….7

6b. Body uniformly pigmented or bicolor, but without dark bars or saddles............…….8

 

7a. 4-5 spines in first dorsal fin; row of scales along base of anal fin..................Evermannichthys metzelaari

7b. 6-7 spines in first dorsal fin; no scales along base of anal fin....................Evermannichthys spongicola

 

8a.  Dorsal fins connected, at least basally, sometimes broadly........Evermannichthys silus 

8b. Dorsal fins separate..............…....................…………….. Evermannichthys convictor

 

9a. Top of head scaled to behind eyes; gill openings broad, extending to below posterior
preopercular margin; spines of pelvic fin not connected by a membrane………..Priolepis hipoliti

9b. Top of head without scales; gill openings narrow, equal to pectoral-fin bases; spines of pelvic fins
connected by a membrane forming a cup‑shaped disc……………………………(Lythrypnus)…..10

 

10a. Body usually uniformly pigmented, lacking bands, bars, or stripes.……….Lythrypnus elasson

10b. Body with bands, bars, and/or stripes..........................................………………......11

 

11a. First two dorsal spines elongate, especially in males...........Lythrypnus heterochroma

11b. No elongate dorsal spines.................................................………………................12

 

12a. Body translucent with pale bars only on posterior half............... Lythrypnus minimus

12b. Body completely banded................................………………..................................13

 

13a. Pale bands on body with dark center lines....................………………...................15

13b. Pale bands on body, if present, lack dark center lines......………………...............14

 

14a. Blue and yellow bands on body, each blue band with darker center line...... Lythrypnus spilus

14b. Narrow dark bands on body without dark center line.…….….... Lythrypnus okapia

  

15a. Dark bands on body divided by pale central areas; pectoral-fin base with two spots,
one ventral and one dorsal (occasionally barely separated); spots on cheek usually arranged
in 3-4 rows radiating from ventral portion of eye……….Lythrypnus phorellus

15b. Dark bands on body not divided by pale central areas; pectoral-fin base with one or two spots……………………………………………………………………………….16

 

16a. Width of pale bands (below dorsal-fin origin) equal to or greater than width of dark bands;
color pattern on cheek usually consisting of two bars or spots arranged in bars under eye,
space between posteriormost bar and preopercular margin usually lacking spots; pectoral-fin
 base spot often extending anteriorly toward opercular membrane......………………Lythrypnus crocodilus

16b. Width of pale bands clearly less than width of dark bands; color pattern on cheek not as above;
pectoral-fin base spot usually not extending anteriorly toward opercular membrane…………..17

 

17a. Pectoral-fin rays 16-18, modally 17; color pattern on cheek consisting of wide bars (occasionally
bars may break up into rows of spots), covering most of cheek with dark pigment; pectoral-fin
base spot very intense, darker than other dark areas of body………............…Lythrypnus mowbrayi

17b. Pectoral-fin rays 15-17, modally 15; color pattern on cheek usually consisting of spots,
often arranged in 3-4 rows radiating from ventral portion of eye, causing most of cheek to be
lightly pigmented; pectoral-fin base spot not conspicuously darker than other dark
areas of body…………………………………………………. Lythrypnus nesiotes

 

18a. Upper 3 to 5 pectoral‑fin rays filamentous and free from membrane; scales
extending forward onto head…………………….……(Bathygobius)……………….19

18b. No free pectoral‑fin rays; no scales on top of head…………………..………….21

 

19a. 36 or fewer scales in a lateral series…………………….………………………..20

19b. 37-41 scales in a lateral series………………..…………… Bathygobius soporator

 

20a. 31-34 (typically 33) scales in a lateral series; 16 or 17 pectoral-fin rays........Bathygobius curacao

20b. 33-36 (typically 35) scales in a lateral series; 19 or 20 pectoral-fin rays.......Bathygobius mystacium

 

21a. A prominent crest from first dorsal fin to between eyes…Lophogobius cyprinoides

21b. No crest or a very low ridge from first dorsal fin to behind eyes.........(Coryphopterus)…….......……………..22

 

22a. Pelvic fins rounded…………………………………………………..……………23

22b. Pelvic fins emarginate………………….…………….…….…………………..…24

 

23a. Prominent dark spot on lower half of pectoral-fin base…Coryphopterus punctipectophorus

23b. No spot on lower half of pectoral-fin base.…………Coryphopterus glaucofrenum

 

24a. Pelvic frenum present……………….……………………………………………25

24b. Pelvic frenum absent……………………………………………………………..26

 

25a. Dark spot on dorsal part of pectoral-fin base………………….Coryphopterus thrix

25b. Dark spot lacking on pectoral-fin base…………………..…Coryphopterus eidolon

 

26a. Pelvic fins separate or nearly so……………………….………………………….27

26b. Pelvic fins united………………………….……………….…Coryphopterus dicrus

 

27a. Black ring surrounds anus……………………………………………...…………28

27b. No black ring surrounding anus……………………….……Coryphopterus alloides

 

28a. Two pores between the eyes………………………………………………………29

28b. Three pores between the eyes……………………………..Coryphopterus hyalinus

 

29a. Second dorsal and anal fins with 11 total elements………Coryphopterus personatus

29b. Second dorsal and anal fins with 10 total elements…………Coryphopterus lipernes

 

30a. Head with 3 or more pairs of barbels; body without scales..……………….......... 31

30b. Head without elongate barbels or with 1 or 2 pairs of short bumps; body with or without scales.......................................................……………………………...............32

 

31a. Body mostly black; two barbels between eye and corner of mouth..…Barbulifer antennatus

31b. Body greenish with pale bands above and below mid-side; one barbel below eye..Barbulifer ceuthoecus

 

32a. First dorsal fin with 8 spines………………………..……………....Pariah scotius

32b. First dorsal fin with 7 spines..............………………............................................33

 

33a. Pelvic fins completely separate.........………………..............................................34

33b. Pelvic fins connected by a membrane..........………………...................................47

 

34a. Body without scales…………………..........………………..................................35

34b. Body scaled................................................……………….....................................40

 

35a. Pectoral fin with dark brown to black bar running dorsoventrally at a posterior angle
across fin; dorsal and caudal fins also with dark bars; anal-fin elements 7 or 8 (usually seven);
second dorsal-fin elements 9-10 (nearly always nine)............Psilotris batrachodes

35b. Pectoral fin lacking bar running dorsoventrally at a posterior angle across fin,
fin is bicolored (upper half black) or unpigmented; anal-fin elements 8-11..............................36

 

36a. Pectoral-fin rays 15; anal-fin elements 8-9……………………..…......Psilotris alepis

36b. Pectoral-fin rays 16-19; anal-fin elements 9-11.................……………..................37

 

37a. Caudal fin with 3 oblique, dark bars; snout very short and blunt, with steep anterior profile;
second dorsal-fin elements 11-12……………………….Psilotris amblyrhynchus

37b. Caudal fin without 3 oblique, dark bars; snout more acute, with flatter anterior profile;
second dorsal-fin elements 10-11………………………………….…………..38

 

38a. Pectoral fin bicolored, dark brown to black on upper 9-11 rays and membranes and
white below; anal-fin elements 10-11 (typically 11).....………………..Psilotris kaufmani

38b. Pectoral fin not bicolored; anal-fin elements 9-11 (typically 10)………………..39

 

39a. Posterior end of jaw extending past posterior margin of pupil; caudal peduncle slender
(80-89 thousandths of SL); snout short (44-55 thousandths of SL)……………..... Psilotris boehlkei

39b. Posterior end of jaw not extending past posterior margin of pupil; caudal peduncle deeper
(greater than 92 thousandths of SL); snout longer (greater than 55 thousandths of
SL).....……..………………………………………………….................Psilotris celsus

 

40a. Pelvic‑fin rays unbranched, the soft rays with expanded tips; tongue bilobed.........41

40b. Pelvic‑fin rays branched, soft rays with or without expanded tips; tongue‑ tip rounded or truncate.......................………………………............…........................….....43

 

41a. Pelvic fins with fleshy tips, not extending beyond base of anal fin………...............42

41b. Pelvic fins without fleshy tips and extending beyond base of anal fin……………….

………………………………………………………………………………Varicus imswe

 

42a. Belly completely scaled or with naked central area; total elements in second dorsal
fin 9-10; 27 scales in a lateral series…………………………………..….Varicus bucca

42b. Belly without scales; total elements in second dorsal fin 9; 18-19 scales in a lateral series……................……………………………................................Varicus marilynae

 

43a. Head pores present………………………………………….Pycnomma roosevelti

43b. No head pores. ...............……………….........………………..............................44

 

44a. Body partially scaled………………….…………………………………………45

44b. Only two scales present, one each at base of upper and lower caudal-fin………..

…................................………………......................……....................Chriolepis fisheri

 

45a. Highly modified, enlarged scale(s) present on caudal-fin base; caudal vertebrae 17……Robinsichthys arrowsmithensis

45b. No modified and/or enlarged scale(s) on caudal-fin base; caudal vertebrae 16….………46

 

46a. Total elements in second dorsal fin 10; total elements in anal fin 9............Chriolepis benthonis

46b. Total elements in second dorsal fin 11; total elements in anal fin 8...…….Chriolepis vespa

 

47a. Mouth not completely closing, with protruding teeth curved outward…..Risor ruber

47b. Mouth closing normally, without protruding teeth...........………………...............48

 

48a. Large teeth on vomer present.………………………..........Palatogobius paradoxus

48b. Teeth on vomer absent…………………………………………………………….49

 

49a. Head pores absent........….....………………...........................................................50

49b. Head pores present.............………………..............................................................51

 

50a. Head very depressed, broader than deep; body dark below, pale above; spines
of pelvic fins not connected by a membrane……………………….………Gobulus myersi

50b. Head compressed, deeper than wide; body with diffuse spots; pelvic‑fin spines
connected to form a cup‑shaped disc………..…………………………....…..Nes longus

 

51a. Scales present in front of pelvic fin; top of head scaled; head compressed…(Bollmannia)..52

51b. No scales anterior to pelvic fins; top of head without scales, or if scaled, head depressed.......55

 

52a. Total elements in second dorsal fin 12.....................................................................53

52b. Total elements in second dorsal fin 13-15...............................................................54

 

53a. Total elements in anal fin 12; no black band on upper lip............Bollmannia litura

53b. Total elements in anal fin 13; black band on upper lip........Bollmannia eigenmanni

 

54a. Total elements in second dorsal fin 13; a longitudinal row of scales along the lower margin
of the cheek................................................................Bollmannia boqueronensis

54b. Total elements in second dorsal fin typically 14, but occasionally 13 or 15; no longitudinal
row of scales along the lower margin of cheek ..........Bollmannia communis

 

55a. Tongue bilobed, no pore above and between anterior margin of eyes....................56

55b. Tongue‑tip usually rounded, rarely bilobed; a median pore between anterior margin of eyes..............................................................................................................................62

 

56a. Head compressed; second dorsal fin with 1 spine and 14 to 18 soft rays..(Microgobius)……57

56b. Head depressed; second dorsal fin with 1 spine and 10 to 13 soft rays.......Parrella macropteryx

 

57a. Three pores in preopercular sensory canal; second dorsal fin with more than 17
elements; anal fin with more than 18 elements; lateral scale rows greater than 65……..58

57b. Two pores in preopercular sensory canal; second dorsal fin typically with 17 or
fewer elements; anal fin with 18 or fewer elements; lateral scale rows fewer than 65.....59

 

58a. Second dorsal-fin elements 20-21; anal-fin elements 21 (occasionally 20) lateral scale
rows about 77-90; scales mostly cycloid; females with pale bar edged in black on body
above pectoral fin……...............................................................Microgobius signatus

58b. Second dorsal-fin elements 18-19; anal-fin elements 19 (occasionally 20); lateral scale
rows about 68-78; scales mostly ctenoid; no dark markings on body in either sex...Microgobius microlepis

 

59a. A fleshy median crest present on nape; a prominent dark spot on body below spinous
dorsal-in origin; caudal fin typically greater than 40% of SL.…………Microgobius meeki

59b. Fleshy median crest absent or poorly developed on nape; body with no dark spot below
spinous dorsal-fin origin or with many dark spots; caudal fin typically less than 40% of SL…60

 

60a. Scales mostly ctenoid; about 4 enlarged caninoid teeth in outer row of each dentary;
interorbital width broad (about 4% of SL); a broad yellow stripe on side with 2 narrow
yellow stripes above….......................................................................….Microgobius carri

60b. Scales mostly cycloid; about 8 enlarged caninoid teeth in outer row of each
dentary; interorbital width narrow (less than 3% of SL); no yellow stripes on body……………61

 

61a. Three pores in lateral cepahlic sensory canal; body with numerous dark blotches; mouth of
males greatly enlarged (greater than 15% of SL in males larger than 25 mm) .Microgobius gulosus

61b. Two pores in lateral cephalic sensory canal; body without dark spots; mouth of males
little enlarged (less than 15% of SL in males)……………Microgobius thalassinus

 

62a. Body with 9 blue vertical bars; upper lip almost completely connected to snout, upper lip
free near end of mouth only………………………Ginsburgellus novemlineatus

62b. Body with vertical bars or stripes, or uniformly grey or brown; upper lip connected to
snout anteriorly only, or if broadly connected, body with longitudinal stripes............63

 

63a. Body with prominent longitudinal stripes or transverse bars, or spotted; head
distinctly compressed, deeper than wide; vertebrae 28…........(Elacatinus).....................64

63b. Body with diffuse transverse bars or uniformly grey or brown, never with longitudinal
stripes; head rounded or depressed, broader than deep, vertebrae 27.....(Gobiosoma).....82

 

64. No transverse bars or bands on body; prominent longitudinal pale-colored stripe
from eye to posterior margin of head and typically extending along body to caudal base;
typically a black longitudinal stripe ventral to the pale-colored stripe...........................65

64b. Prominent transverse bars or bands present on body; no longitudinal stripes extending
the entire body length, if longitudinal stripe present, it only extends the length of the head......76

 

65a. Postorbital pale-colored stripe incomplete, not extending posteriorly beyond pectoral fin....66

65b. Postorbital pale-colored stripe extending full length of body to caudal-fin base....67

 

66a. Body dark dorsally, paler ventrally, with dark area along caudal peduncle forming
squarish basicaudal spot; postorbital colored stripe bright yellow............Elacatinus chancei

66b. Body and fins uniformly dark, slaty gray; postorbital colored stripe blue.......Elacatinus tenox

 

67a. Rostral frenum present (occasionally with slight groove between lip and
snout in evelynae), mouth distinctly inferior, the snout overhanging upper lip...........................68

67b. Rostral frenum absent (upper jaw always separated from snout by a deep
groove; mouth usually terminal or subterminal (except distinctly inferior in genie)..................70

 

68a. Pale marking on snout an isolated, vertically ovate marking centrally..........Elacatinus illecebrosus

68b. Pale markings on snout consisting of a stripe continued forward from each
eye, the two not interconnected anteriorly (oceanops), or a continuous V from eye to eye (evelynae)....69

 

69a. Predorsal region not pale centrally; lateral pale stripe blue in life.........Elacatinus oceanops

69b. Predorsal region usually with a pale central streak; lateral pale stripe
yellow to chartreuse in life anteriorly, becoming pale posteriorly.......................Elacatinus evelynae

 

70a. Mouth distinctly inferior, shark-like; teeth in one series in upper jaw.......Elacatinus genie

70b. Mouth subterminal to terminal; teeth in two or more rows in upper jaw.................71

 

71a. Tip of snout dusky overally (the nostrils may be set in a pale batch on either side in young horsti).......72

71b. Tip of snout with a distinct pale marking that includes the anterior midline...........73

 

72a. Longitudinal pale stripe broad, extending ventrally to or below lateral septum;
pectoral-fin rays modally 16...............................................................Elacatinus atronasum

72b. Longitudinal pale stripe narrow, placed high on side of body; pectoral-fin rays
modally 18 and frequently 19.....................................................................Elacatinus horsti

 

73a. Longitudinal dark stripe terminating in an ovate spot on base of caudal fin
(sometimes some dusky pigment present behind the spot)......................Elacatinus louisae

73b. Longitudinal dark stripe continued to tip of caudal fin without swelling to
an ovate spot on base of caudal fin...................................................................................................74

 

74a. Longitudinal dark stripe extending down to ventral midline; lateral pale stripe
wide, roughly equal in width to eye; predorsal area without a pale median
streak......................................................................................................Elacatinus prochilos

74b. Longitudinal dark stripe narrow, its lower margin well removed from
base of anal fin; lateral pale stripe narrow, notably narrower than eye;
predorsal dark area with a pale median streak.....................................................................75

 

75a. Pectoral-fin rays modally 19 (range 18-20), females with
enlarged canine teeth.....................................................................Elacatinus xanthiprora

75b. Pectoral-fin rays modally 17 (range 16-18), females
without any enlarged canine teeth..............................................Elacatinus randalli

 

76a. Body naked; dark green with about 17-23 narrow, pale green
bars posterior to pectoral-fin base; side of head with broad postorbital
red to brownish red stripe; pectoral rays usually 20 or 21 (rarely 19)....Elacatinus multifasciatus

76b. Body with at least 2 basicaudal scales; body pale to dark but
not greenish; no longitudinal stripe on head; pectoral rays 14-18 (rarely 19).......................................77

 

77a. Body straw-colored, 13 prominent dark mahogany colored bands
posterior to pectoral-fin base..........................................................................................................78

77b. Body variously spotted or banded, but if banded, the bands not
dark mahogany colored and fewer than 13................................................................................79

 

78a. Adjacent dark bands on body wider than pale interspace; 4 modified
basicaudal scales plus patch of 9-12 scales on side of caudal peduncle;
pectoral rays typically 18 (17-19).........................................................................Elacatinus zebrellus

78b. Adjacent dark bands on body narrower than pale interspace; 4
modified basicaudal scales plus patch of 4 or 5 scales on side of caudal
peduncle; pectoral rays typically 17 (16-18)..........................................Elacatinus macrodon

 

79a. Body dark, typically with 8 or 9 dark bands on body posterior to pectoral fin.....80

79b. Body pallid, with conspicuous dark spots or incomplete bands; if banded,
squamation reduced to 2 basicaudal scales....................................................................81

 

80a. Dorsal, caudal and anal fins with rays inconspicuously barred, interradial
membranes dark; body dark, the bands sometimes difficult to discern on the
dark background; 5-8 rows of scales on side of caudal peduncle................Elacatinus gemmatus

80b. Dorsal, caudal and anal fins not barred; bands usually easy to discern
and forked dorsally; 8-13 rows of scales on side of caudal peduncle....................Elacatinus pallens

 

81a. Body boldly spotted with dark mahogany brown; 4 or 5 rows of scales on caudal
peduncle...............................................................................................Elacatinus saucrus

81b. Body banded (sometimes indistinctly or with incomplete bands) posteriorly;
sides of belly with two bright orange spots, separated by two dark bars and
white interspace; only two small basicaudal scales.................................Elacatinus dilepis

 

82a. Short, segment of lateral canal, with pore at each end, dorsal to
opercle (not to be confused with single pore in lateral canal dorsoposterior
to preopercular margin); body naked to scaly.....................................................83

82b. No segment of lateral canal and, therefore, no pores dorsal to opercle.................88

 

83a. Body always naked; anal-fin rays typically 11, rarely 10 or 12;
second dorsal-fin rays typically 13, rarely 12 or 14...................................Gobiosoma bosc

83b. Body with at least two basicaudal scales, the posterior part of the
body sometimes extensively scaled; anal-fin rays typically 10 (except in ginsburgi);
second dorsal-fin rays typically 10-12, rarely 13.................................................................84

 

84a. Two small basicaudal scales, one each at the upper and lower end of the caudal-fin
base; pectoral-fin rays 15-19..........................................................................................85

84b. Sides of caudal peduncle scaly, typically more than eight transverse rows present;
pectoral-fin rays 18-22 (except in grosvenori, which is extensively scaled)..................86

 

85a. Anal-fin rays typically 11, rarely 10 or 12; pectoral-fin rays 18
or 19 (rarely 17)... .......................................................................Gobiosoma ginsburgi

85b. Anal-fin rays typically 10, rarely 9, pectoral-fin rays 16
(rarely 15 or 17).........................................................................Gobiosoma longipala

 

86a. Second dorsal-fin rays 10; anal-fin rays 9; pectoral-fin rays 17
(rarely 16 or 18); 31-35 transverse scale rows along body, the scales
rather deciduous.........................................................................Gobiosoma grosvenori

86b. Second dorsal-fin rays 12 (rarely 11 or 13); anal-fin rays 10 (rarely 9);
pectoral-fin rays 18-21.............................................................................................87

 

87a. Scales covering broad triangular area whose apex is on mid-side toward
pectoral fin, typically in 26-29 transverse rows; pectoral-fin rays 18 or 19,
rarely 20; conspicuous series of short dark dashes along mid-side............Gobiosoma spilotum

87b. Scaled area less extensive, but with mid-lateral row reaching far forward
and containing about 34-36 scales; pectoral-fin rays 20 or 21.........Gobiosoma hemigymnum

 

88a. Body entirely naked; no short, bilobed mental barbel; three preopercular pores...Gobiosoma robustum

88b. Body with seven or more transverse rows of scales or, if only two basicaudal
scales present, chin with short bilobed barbel; two or three preopercular pores present ..........89

 

89a. Scales interrupted, with 7-16 transverse rows posteriorly and an isolated
patch posterior to pectoral-fin base; no scales on caudal base; two
preopercular pores present ..................................................................................................90

89b. Scales extending forward, uninterrupted, as a narrow wedge to pectoral-fin
base, in about 30 transverse rows; three preopercular pores present...........Gobiosoma hildebrandi

 

90a. Pectoral-fin rays typically 15 or 16..........................................................................91

90b. Pectoral-fin rays typically 17 or 18..............................................Gobiosoma schultzi

 

91a. Anal-fin rays 8-11, typically 9; males without filamentous dorsal-fin
spine.............................................................................................Gobiosoma yucatanum

91b. Anal-fin rays 9-11, typically 10; males with filamentous dorsal-fin
spine........................................................................................................Gobiosoma spes

 

Included species of Gobiinae:

W31 = western sector of FAO Fishing Area 31

S31 = southern sector of FAO Fishing Area 31

NW41 = northwest sector of FAO Fishing Area 41

 

Barbulifer antennatus Bφhlke & Robins, 1968, to 3cm, Bahamas, Jamaica, Antilles W31

Barbulifer ceuthoecus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1884), to 3cm, s. Florida and Bahamas to Central America and northern South America W31

 

Bathygobius curacao (Metzelaar, 1919) to 7.5cm, Bermuda, Florida, and Bahamas to northern South America  W31

Bathygobius mystacium Ginsburg, 1947, to 15cm, Florida and Bahamas to Antilles and Central America W31

Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837) to 7.5cm, North Carolina, Bermuda, Florida, Bahamas, and n.Gulf of Mexico to s.e. Brazil W31, NW41

 

Bollmannia boqueronensis Evermann & Marsh, 1902, to 10cm, s. Florida to n. South America W31

Bollmannia communis Ginsburg, 1942, to 10cm, s. Florida and entire Gulf of Mexico W31

Bollmannia eigenmanni (Garman, 1896), to 18cm, s. Florida and n.e. Gulf of Mexico W31

Bollmannia litura Ginsburg, 1935, to 6cm, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic W31

 

Chriolepis benthonis Ginsburg, 1953, to 3.5cm, Yucatan W31

Chriolepis fisheri Herre, 1942, to 2.5cm, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Barbados W31

Chriolepis vespa Hastings & Bortone, 1981, to 4cm, n.e. Gulf of Mexico W31

 

Coryphopterus alloides Bφhlke & Robins, 1960, to 4cm, s. Florida, Bahamas, and Belize W31

Coryphopterus dicrus Bφhlke & Robins, 1960, to 5cm, s. Florida & Bahamas to Antilles and Central America  W31

Coryphopterus eidolon Bφhlke & Robins, 1960, to 6cm, s. Florida & Bahamas to Antilles W31

Coryphopterus glaucofraenum Gill, 1863, to 7.5cm, North Carolina and Bermuda to Brazil and Caribbean W31, NW41

Coryphopterus hyalinus Bφhlke & Robins, 1962, to 2.5cm, Florida, Bahamas, Antilles, W. Caribbean W31

Coryphopterus lipernes Bφhlke & Robins, 1962, to 3.2cm, Florida keys & Bahamas to Central America incl. Antilles W31

Coryphopterus personatus (Jordan & Thompson, 1905), to 3.5cm, Bermuda, Florida & Bahamas to Lesser Antilles and W. Caribbean W31

Coryphopterus punctipectophorus Springer, 1960, to 7.5cm, both coasts of  s. Florida and Alabama W31

Coryphopterus thrix Bφhlke & Robins, 1960 to 5cm, s. Florida & Bahamas W31

 

Elacatinus atronasum (Bφhlke & Robins, 1968), to 2.5cm, Bahamas W31

Elacatinus chancei (Beebe & Hollister, 1933), to 5cm, Bahamas to Venezuela W31

Elacatinus dilepis (Bφhlke & Robins, 1968), to 2.5cm,  Bahamas, Grand Cayman, Lesser Antilles, Belize, and Colombia W31

Elacatinus evelynae (Bφhlke & Robins, 1968), to 4cm, Bahamas, Virgin Islands, Antilles, and w. Caribbean W31

Elacatinus gemmatus (Ginsburg, 1939), to 2.5cm, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles, Belize to Colombia and Venezuela W31

Elacatinus genie (Bφhlke & Robins, 1968), to 4.5cm, Bahamas and Cayman Islands W31

Elacatinus horsti (Metzelaar, 1922), to 5cm, s. Florida, n. Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Belize, Nicaragua, Panama, and Curacao W31

Elacatinus illecebrosus (Bφhlke & Robins, 1968), to 4cm, Mexico to Colombia W31

Elacatinus louisae (Bφhlke & Robins, 1968), to 3.8cm, Bahamas, Grand Cayman, Colombia W31

Elacatinus macrodon (Beebe & Tee‑Van, 1928), to 5cm, s. Florida and Cuba to Haiti W31

Elacatinus mutifasciatus (Steindachner, 1876), to 5cm, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Antilles, and Panama to Venezuela W31

Elacatinus oceanops Jordan, 1904 to 5cm, s. Florida, Florida Keys, Texas, Yucatan, and Belize W31

Elacatinus pallens (Ginsburg, 1939), to 1.9cm, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Lesser Antilles, Belize, and Colombia W31

Elacatinus prochilos (Bφhlke & Robins, 1968), to 4cm, n. Gulf of Mexico, Jamaica, Lesser Antilles, Yucatan and Belize W31

Elacatinus randalli (Bφhlke & Robins, 1968), to 4.6cm, Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles, and Venezuela W31

Elacatinus saucrus (Robins, 1960), to 1.6cm, Florida Keys, Bahamas, Jamaica, Virgin Islands, and Belize W31

Elacatinus tenox (Bφhlke & Robins, 1968), to 2.5cm, Lesser Antilles, Panama W31

Elacatinus xanthiprora (Bφhlke & Robins, 1960), to 4cm, Florida Keys, Dry Tortugas, Caribbean W31

Elacatinus zebrellus (Robins, 1958), to 2.7cm, Trinidad and Venezuela W31

 

Evermannichthys convictor Bφhlke & Robins, 1969, to 2cm, Bahamas W31

Evermannichthys metzelaari Hubbs, 1923, to 3cm, North Carolina, Bahamas, n.e. Gulf of Mexcio to Curacao, Colombia NW31

Evermannichthys silus Bφhlke & Robins, 1969, to 2.5cm, Bahamas W31

Evermannichthys spongicola (Radcliffe, 1917), to 3cm, North Carolina and ne Gulf of Mexico to Campeche NW31

 

Ginsburgellus novemlineatus (Fowler, 1950), to 2.5cm, Bahamas to Central America and n. South America W31

 

Gobiosoma bosc (Lacepθde, 1800), to 6cm, Massachusetts to Florida, along the n. coast of the Gulf of Mexico to Campeche NW31

Gobiosoma ginsburgi Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928, to 6cm, Massachusetts to s. Florida NW31

Gohiosoma grosvenori (Robins, 1964), to 3cm, s.e. Florida, Jamaica, Venezuela W31

Gobiosoma hemigymnum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888), to 4.8cm, West Indies W31

Gobiosoma hildebrandi (Ginsburg, 1939), to 4cm, Panama Canal W31

Gobiosoma longipala Ginsburg, 1933 to 5cm, Gulf coast of Florida to Mississippi W31

Gobiosoma robustum Ginsburg, 1933 to 5cm, east coast of Florida and entire Gulf of Mexico W31

Gobiosoma schultzi (Ginsburg, 1944), to 2.5cm, Venezuela W31

Gobiosoma spes (Ginsburg, 1939), to 4.1cm, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela W31

Gobiosoma spilotum (Ginsburg, 1939), to 3cm, Panama W31

Gobiosoma yucatanum Dawson, 1971, to 3cm, Caribbean side of Yucatan Peninsula W31

 

Gobulus myersi Ginsburg, 1939, to 15cm, s. Florida and Bahamas to Venezuela W31

 

Lophogobius cyprinoides (Pallas, 1770), to 10cm, Bermuda, Florida & Bahamas to Central America and northern South America W31

 

Lythrypnus crocodilus (Beebe & Tee‑Van, 1928), to 2cm, w. Caribbean, Lesser and Greater Antilles, Bahamas W31

Lythrypnus elasson Bφhlke & Robins, 1960, to 2cm, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands W31

Lythrypnus heterochroma Ginsburg, 1939, to 2.5cm, Bahamas, Cuba, Mexico, Belize W31

Lythrypnus minimus Garzσn & Acero, 1988, to 1.1cm, Bahamas, Venezuela, Colombia W31

Lythrypnus mowbrayi (Bean, 1906), to 2cm, Bermuda NW31

Lythrypnus nesiotes Bφhlke & Robins 1960, to 2cm, s. Florida & Bahamas, Antilles, n. South America to the w. Caribbean and Texas W31

Lythrypnus okapia Robins & Bφhlke, 1964, to 1.3cm, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Colombia W31

Lythrypnus phorellus Bφhlke & Robins 1960, to 2cm, North Carolina to s. Florida and Texas, Central America W31

Lythrypnus spilus Bφhlke & Robins, 1960, to 2.5cm, s. Florida & Bahamas to Greater Antilles W31

 

Microgobius carri Fowler, 1945 to 7.5cm, North Carolina and e. Gulf of Mexico to Lesser Antilles NW31

Microgobius gulosus (Girard, 1858), to 7.5cm, Florida to Texas W31

Microgobius meeki Evermann & Marsh, 1899, to 5.4cm, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Brazil W31

Microgobius microlepis Longley & Hildebrand, 1940, to 5cm, s. Florida  & Bahamas to Yucatan and Belize W31

Microgobius signatus Poey, 1876 to 6cm, Antilles to Venezuela and Nicaragua W31

Microgobius thalassinus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1883), to 4cm, Maryland to Texas W31

 

Nes longus (Nichols, 1914), to 10cm, Bermuda, s. Florida & Bahamas to Antilles, Venezuela, Panama, and Yucatan W31

 

Palatogobius paradoxus Gilbert, 1971 to 3.5cm, n.e. Gulf of Mexico to Lesser Antilles,  Venezuela and Panama W31

 

Parrella macropteryx Ginsburg, 1939, to 8cm, Cuba, Puerto Rico W31

 

Pariah scotius Bφhlke, 1969, to 3cm, Bahamas W31

 

Priolepis hipoliti (Metzelaar, 1922), to 4cm, s. Florida & Bahamas to n. South America W31

 

Psilotris alepis Ginsburg, 1953, to 2.4cm, Bahamas, Cuba, Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Honduras W31

Psilotris amblyrhynchus Smith and Baldwin, 1999, to 4cm, Belize W31

Psilotris batrachodes Bφhlke, 1963, to 1.9cm, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands Puerto Rico, Belize, Honduras, Colombia W31

Psilotris boehlkei Greenfield, 1993, to 4cm, Lesser Antilles W31

Psilotris celsus Bφhlke 1963, to 5.1cm, Bermuda, Bahamas, Virgin Islands, Colombia W31

Psilotris kaufmani Greenfield, Findley, and Johnson 1993, to 4cm, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Belize, Honduras W31

 

 

Ptereleotris calliurus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882), to 12.5cm, North Carolina, s. Florida and e. Gulf of Mexico NW31

Ptereleotris helenae (Randall, 1967), to 12cm, s.e. Florida & Bahamas, Caribbean including Antilles W31

 

Pycnomma roosevelti Ginsburg, 1939, to 2.5cm, Venezuela W31

 

Risor ruber (Rosιn, 1911), to 2.5cm, Texas, s. Florida & Bahamas to Antilles and Surinam W31

 

Robinsichthys arrowsmithensis Birdsong, 1988, to 3cm, Yucatan W31

 

Varicus bucca Robins & Bφhlke, 1961, to 3cm, Lesser Antilles W31

Varicus imswe  Greenfield, 1981, to 2cm, Bahamas and Belize W31

Varicus marilynae Gilmore, 1979, to 2.5cm, Florida W31