Coryphopterus glaucofraenum Gill, 1863
San Salvador, Bahamas

Photo by: Frank C. Elia
Butterflyte Solutions





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Papillae Drawing

IDENTIFICATION - Pale sand color with black spot on side of head above gill cover and 3 rows of round to X-shaped dark spots on body (spots often quite faint). Caudal fin base has dark, often dumbell-shaped bar, sometimes broken into two spots. Branchiostegal membrane pale. 10 elements each in second dorsal and anal fins. Pelvic fins united, well-developed frenum; inner pelvic rays branched, above as long as outer rays. (C.L.Smith)

Head Pores - Head canal with pores B',C(s),D,E,F,G,H' and K',L'; preopercle with pores M',N,O'

Scales - mostly ctenoid, 26-28 in lateral series

Fins - D1 with 6 spines; D2 and anal with 10 elements; pelvic fins united with a well-developed frenum; inner pelvic rays branched

Head - maxilla extending to anterior of pupil; eyes project above profile of head

Papillae - a longitudinal pattern

Color - In life: pallid to darkly pigmented depending on environment; vertical bar on caudal base, with or without dorsal-ventral spots; fins clear to dusky; In dark form: body with three rows of dark markings, all conspicuous; the upper along the mid-dorsum including the nuchal crest, the second extending from upper margin of opercle to upper spot at caudal base, the third from axil of pectoral fin to lower spot on caudal base. Mid-dorsal row usually darkest, consisting of a series of well-defined square spots. Markings in second row larger, rounded anteriorly, X-shaped posteriorl. All marks in third row X-shaped, the X's larger than in other rows. Usually three or four dark marks in a row on mid-ventral region of caudal peduncle. In Pallid sand form: same rows of spots but spots diffuse and faint in some specimens; two rows on side of body, spots rounded, rarely X-shaped; anterior spot above and slightly behind pectoral fin-base, often a conspicuous ring; markings in lower row usually short, vertical elongate bars. A prominent black spot, often triangular in outline, over open part of lateral canal above opercle, this spot easily the outstanding feature of the color pattern. (B&R 60)

Distribution - Bermuda, North Carolina, south Florida, Florida Keys, Bahamas, around Caribbean, including Antilles and Brazil

Habitat - Sand around bases of coral reefs;To depths of more than 80 feet

Notes -

photo by J. Van Tassell - Curacao

Photo by Annemarie Kramer from Curacao

Photo by Annemarie Kramer Curacao